SOME AESTHETIC AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS
The vast majority of the recording for this library of sounds has taken place in a near-outdoor setting, that is, in the ‘pendopo’ (Javanese style pavillion) of Montebello. Throughout the recording sessions we have maintained the same philosophy/aesthetics: to retain the original qualities of the sound of gamelan instruments, without alteration of any sort. Thus the instruments have been recorded without additional processing, and the natural duration of sounds has not been changed. Sometimes, within the same instrument, a key may resonate longer or shorter than the others; in line with the general philosophy of this catalogue, such differences have been left unaltered. A similar consideration applies to occasional differences in sound quality and timbre within the same instrument. Such differences are not uncommon and are taken as natural in gamelan sets.
In most cases, the instruments have been played and recorded several times, according to different degrees of striking force. With rare exceptions, only one sample has been selected for inclusion in this catalogue. Our choice criterion has been always related to the richest possible spectrum as resulting from the striking technique.
It should be noted that the metallophones of the gamelan, being idiophones, present an important characteristic: together with the basic note they produce ‘partials’ (erratic and unpredictable overtones), rather than ‘harmonics’ (smooth and mathematically related overtones). However, when an individual tube resonator is employed, as is the case with the ‘gender’ family of instruments, harmonics may also be produced.
We mentioned that the gamelan’s metallophones are idiophones. We should add that there is a controversy concerning the gong family of instruments. As the sounding part is the flat area that vibrates around the boss being struck, these instruments may also be considered as membranophones, just like drums.
LIST OF INSTRUMENTS
Gong Ageng 6 sounds Tracks 01-06
Gong Suwukan 6 sounds Tracks 07-12
Kempul 8 sounds Tracks 13-20
Kenong Japan 1 sound Track 21
Kenong pelog 8 sounds Track 22
Kenong slendro 5 sounds Track 23
Ketuk/Kempyang 4 sounds Tracks 24-26
Engkug Kemong 2 sounds Track 27
Bonang Panembung pelog 14 sounds Tracks 28-29
Bonang Barung pelog 14 sounds Tracks 30-31
Bonang Panerus pelog 14 sounds Tracks 32-33
Bonang Barung slendro 10 sounds Tracks 34-35
Bonang Panerus slendro 10 sounds Tracks 36-37
Bedug (ceremonial drum) 1 sound Track 38
Kendhang Ageng 7 sounds Track 39
Kendhang Ciblon 6 sounds Track 40
Kendhang Ketipung 2 sounds Track 41
Gong Kemodong 1 sound Track 42
Slenthem pelog 7 sounds Track 43
Slenthem slendro 7 sounds Track 44
Gender pelog 17 sounds Tracks 45-47
Gender slendro 14 sounds Tracks 48-50
Gender Panerus slendro 14 sounds Tracks 51-53
Kemanak 6 sounds Track 54
Slentho slendro 7 sounds Track 55
Slentho pelog 7 sounds Track 56
Demung pelog (iron) 7 sounds Track 57
Saron pelog (iron) 7 sounds Track 58
Saron pelog 7 sounds Track 59
Saron slendro 9 sounds Track 60
Peking slendro 7 sounds Track 61
Peking pelog (iron) 7 sounds Track 62
Gambang gangsa pl 23 sounds Tracks 63-66
Gambang gangsa sl (iron) 17 sounds Tracks 67-70
Gambang slendro (wood) 20 sounds Tracks 71-74
Gambang pelog (wood) 21 sounds Tracks 75-77
Keprak (wood) hits Track 78
Slenthem 1 octave 13 sounds Track 79
Gender 1 octave 13 sounds Track 80
Panerus 1 octave 13 sounds Track 81
Demung (iron) 1 octave 13 sounds Track 82
Saron (iron) 1 octave 13 sounds Track 83
Peking (iron) 1 octave 13 sounds Track 84
Bonang (iron) 4 octaves 49 sounds Tracks 85-89
Lithophone (Montebello stones)
Natural tuning 20 sounds Track 90
Chromatic re-tuning 37 sounds Tracks 91-94
LIST OF TRACKS
01 gong ageng "2" (two hits) 0:30
02 gong ageng "3" (two hits) 0:28
03 gong ageng "3" ‘Bali’ 0:22
04 gong ageng ‘Sekar Sepi Sendiri’ 0:19
05 gong ageng "3" (iron) 0:15
06 gong ageng "5" 0:28
07 suwukan pelog 6 0:10
08 suwukan pelog 7 0:13
09 suwukan pelog 1 0:21
10 suwukan pelog 2 0:17
11 suwukan slendro 6 ‘antique’ 0:14
12 suwukan slendro 2 0:15
13 kempul slendro 3 0:13
14 kempul slendro 6 0:12
15 kempul slendro 2 0:10
16 kempul pelog 3 0:14
17 kempul pelog 5 0:12
18 kempul pelog 6 0:08
19 kempul pelog 7 0:09
20 kempul pelog 1 0:13
21 kenong japan 0:08
22 kenong pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,1 1:19
23 kenong sl 2,3,5,6,1 0:55
24 ketuk sl 2 0:04
25 ketuk pl 2 0:04
26 kempyang pl 6, high6 0:09
27 engkug kemong sl 6,1 0:13
28 bonang panembung pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 0:45
29 continues high1,2,3,4,5,6,7 0:33
30 bonang barung pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 0:29
31 continues high1,2,3,4,5,6,7 0:34
32 bonang panerus pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 0:30
33 continues high1,2,3,4,5,6,7 0:32
34 bonang barung sl 2,3,5,6,1 0:23
35 continues high2,3,5,6,1 0:27
36 bonang panerus sl 2,3,5,6,1 0:23
37 continues high 2,3,5,6,1 0:24
38 bedug (three hits) 0:13
39 kendhang ageng (7 different hits) 0:32
40 kendhang ciblon (6 different hits) 0:26
41 kendhang ketipung (2 different hits) 0:13
42 gong kemodong 0:17
43 slenthem pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 2:06
44 slenthem sl 6,1,2,3,5,6,1 2:05
45 gender pl 6,7,1,2,3,5 1:11
46 continues high6,7,1,2,3,5 1:38
47 continues higher6,7,1,2,3 1:15
48 gender sl 6,1,2,3,5 1:00
49 continues high6,1,2,3,5 1:07
50 continues higher6,1,2,3 0:59
51 gender panerus sl 6,1,2,3,5 1:24
52 continues high6,1,2,3,5 1:20
53 continues higher6,1,2,3 1:01
54 kemanak - six pieces/tones 0:44
55 slentho sl 6,1,2,3,5,high6,1 0:57
56 slentho pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 1:24
57 demung (iron) pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 1:52
58 saron (iron) pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 1:19
59 saron pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 1:35
60 saron sl 6,1,2,3,5,high6,1,2,3 1:34
61 peking sl 6,1,2,3,5,high6,1 1:48
62 peking (iron) pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 0:59
63 gambang gangsa pl 6,7,1,2,3,4,5 2:16
64 continues high6,7,1,2,3,4,5 1:29
65 continues higher6,7,1,2,3,4,5 1:10
66 continues higher6,7 0:17
67 gambang gangsa (iron) sl 6,1,2,3,5 1:01
68 continues high6,1,2,3,5 0:42
69 continues higher6,1,2,3,5 0:37
70 continues higher6,1 0:18
71 gambang (wood) sl 6,1,2,3,5 0:22
72 continues high6,1,2,3,5 0:20
73 continues higher6,1,2,3,5 0:23
74 continues higher6,1,2,3,5 0:24
75 gambang (wood) pl 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 0:30
76 continues high1,2,3,4,5,6,7 0:29
77 continues higher1,2,3,4,5,6,7 0:31
78 keprak (various hits) 0:20
79 chromatic scale slenthem 13-note C to C 2:49
80 chromatic scale gender 13-note C to C 2:50
81 chromatic scale gender panerus 13-note C to C 2:56
82 chromatic scale demung (iron) 13-note C to C 3:04
83 chromatic scale saron (iron) 13-note C to C 2:07
84 chromatic scale peking (iron) 13-note C to C 2:01
85 chromatic scale bonang (iron) 12-note octave 1:04
86 continues 12-note higher octave 0:55
87 continues 12-note higher octave 0:53
88 continues 12-note higher octave 0:51
89 continues highest C 0:07
90 lithophone - 20 natural sounds (found tuning) 1:26
91 lithophone - chromatic scale 3-note A to B 0:15
92 continues 12-note higher octave 0:50
93 continues 12-note higher octave 0:51
94 continues 10-note higher C to A 0:42
FAMILIES OF INSTRUMENTS
Hanging Gongs: gong ageng, gong suwukan, kempul
Resting Gongs: kenong, ketuk, kempyang, bonang (panembung, barung, panerus)
Drums: bedug, kendhang ageng, ciblon, ketipung
Gender: gong kemodong, slenthem, gender, gender panerus
Saron: slentho, demung, saron, peking, gambang gangsa
BRIEF DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTRUMENTS AND SOUNDS
With the exception of ‘drums’ and ‘gambang’, all instruments of the traditional gamelan presented here are metallophones, where the entire instrument or the sounding element is made of metal, and the sounding element is struck with mallets or sticks of various shapes and hardness according to the type of sound required. The metal is normally bronze, an alloy comprising 10 parts of copper and 3 parts of tin, and it needs to be forged – not simply cast - through a long, hard, and complex process. Sometimes iron is used instead of bronze. Iron instruments, cheaper and somewhat simpler to make, are less ‘noble’ than bronze instruments, but it should be noted that, when properly made, their sound is not at all to be looked down on. On occasion - subjectively, and for reasons too long to be discussed here - their sound might even be better liked. In our lists all metallophones are made of bronze, except when ‘iron’ is explicitly indicated.
For pitch-range of the instruments, see the table providing such information. Another table shows the pitches and intervals of the two Javanese scales of our gamelan – slendro and pelog – and their relation to the 12-tone Western chromatic scale. By way of completeness, it should be said that the Javanese scales have ‘stretching octaves’.
Diameter: 90-100 cm. Weight: 70-80 kg. It is hung vertically from a stand or ‘gayor’. It is played by beating against the boss with a mallet that has a spherical, heavily padded head. Its musical function is a very important one, marking the close of the longest cycle (‘gongan’) within a gamelan composition. It is also regarded as the repository of the spirit of the gamelan.
The gong ageng is the lowest-pitched instrument in a gamelan. Its deep sound is rich in overtones, has a built-in beat-note (‘ombak’), and its decay-time may go over twenty seconds. While normally one or two such instruments are present in a gamelan, our library has six, including an iron one and one with the lowest pitch (‘2’) that can be normally encountered (not considering the very large, sacred and unplayed gongs resting in the secret chambers of the kratons).
Diameter: 70-80 cm. Weight: 35-40 kg. These are the middle range of the hanging gongs. They substitute the gong ageng in certain fast-playing pieces, or magically emphasise certain points of the long, stately compositions (‘gendhing ageng’).
Diameter: 45-60 cm. Weight: 8-15 kg. The smallest of the hanging gongs. They are used as punctuating instruments or as reinforcement of notes in certain pieces. The mallets decrease in size and weight going from the gong ageng to the kempul.
Diameter: 35-40 cm. Height: 30-35 cm. Weight: around 10 kg.
The kenong is a small gong laid horizontally on crossed cord, and sitting inside a wooden frame. Having an individual frame for each sounding element (‘pencon’) makes us count the number of frames (14 in our list of instruments); on the other hand, when 10 to 14 pencon sit in one common frame, as in the bonang, we count that as one instrument.
The kenong has a relatively high-pitched and clear sound, which is obtained by beating the boss with a stick provided with a cylindrical head padded with coiled string. Its musical function is to divide the gong-cycles into (usually) four sub-cycles (‘kenongan’).
The kenong japan (or jepang) is a special lower-pitched kenong tuned to a particular tone (‘5’) and used mainly in Yogya-style gamelan.
Ketuk, Kempyang, Engkug kemong
Ketuk and kempyang are two small horizontal gongs (diameters 28 and 23 cm) which mark the pulse within the kenong-cycle. The engkug kemong (often hanging rather than resting on cord) may take up the role of the kempyang in slendro pieces.
A bonang instrument consists of a double row of resting gongs: 14 in pelog, 12 or 10 in slendro, comprising approximately two octaves. The kettles rest on cord in a horizontal wooden frame.
The bonang panembung is the largest and lowest in pitch of the bonang instruments; length around 250 cm., diameter of kettle around 30 cm., weight of kettle around 5 kg. The panembung is considered an archaic instrument, more frequently used in Yogyanese ensembles.
Often just called ‘bonang’, this is the middle-sized of this group of instruments. Length: 170-230 cm. Diameter of kettle around 24 cm. Musically, the bonang barung has a melodic leading role in pieces of the so-called loud style. The lower octave of the bonang barung coincides with the higher of the panembung, and its higher octave coincides with the lower of the panerus.
Length: 140-200 cm. Diameter of kettle around 20 cm. The highest in pitch, the bonang panerus has an important function in playing interlocking patterns with the bonang barung. All bonang instruments are played with two long sticks bound with cord at the striking end.
This is a large ceremonial double-face drum. Length: 90 cm. Diameter of each face: 55 cm. It is often suspended and is struck with a beater. Its function is quite different with respect to the following kendhang instruments.
Kendhang ageng, ciblon, ketipung
These are the important tempo-leading instruments, made of hollowed tree-trunk sections with cow or goat skin stretched across the two open ends. Lengths are, respectively, 78, 68, and 48 cm. Diameters of the larger face in each drum: 38, 28, 20 cm. They are played with bare hands, using a variety of striking modalities to produce different intended sounds. Normally the kendhang ageng and ketipung are used in combination during slow tempos, while the ciblon is used in fast tempos and to accompany dance or wayang.
This is a substitute of the gong ageng, sometimes used in reduced ensembles. It obtains the sound through a construction design that actually belongs to the family of gender instruments - that is, bronze bars suspended over a resonator. The desired beat-note of the gong ageng is obtained by striking, at the same time or in rapid succession, two bars with slightly diverging pitches.
Length: 85 cm. Height: 37 cm. Seven bars are suspended over individual tube-resonators. Bars are struck with a stick having a padded disk as a head. This instrument carries the basic (skeleton or ‘balungan’) melody of any piece.
Lenght: 115 cm. Fourteen thin bars over individual tuned resonators, covering almost three octaves. Two sticks, similar but smaller than the one of the slenthem, are used in a two-hand (rather difficult) technique. It is considered to be one of the finest instruments in the gamelan.
Lenght: 95 cm. Same as the gender but playing one octave higher. Used for ornamenting the musical parts of the gender, with a doubled density of notes.
A banana-shaped bronze instrument, 24 cm. long, 4 cm. wide, held in one hand and struck with a mallet with the other. It is used in pairs, requiring two musicians. The two single notes produced in alternation create a rhythmic pattern which is typical of the ancient gamelan repertoire.
Another archaic, seldom used instrument, which opens the family of saron instruments at the lowest register. Its seven knobbed heavy bars rest over a trough resonator. It has the same range and musical function as the slenthem. Length of the instrument: 115 cm.
Length: 105 cm. Seven bars, over a trough resonator, struck with a wooden hammer.
Length: 85 cm. Seven bars (nine for slendro) as above, one octave higher.
Length: 70 cm. As above, one octave higher. The hammer needs to be harder, so it is made of buffalo horn.
With a length of 160 cm., this old-style saron-type multi-octave instrument accomodates the pitch-ranges from demung to peking. In our library, the 23 pelog notes derive from two instruments (demung-saron saron-peking) which have an overlapping octave. Similar is the case of the 17 notes in the slendro scale.
Length: 160 cm. This is the only gamelan instrument with tuned bars made of (hard) wood. Its 21 bars (30 to 55 cm. long, 5 to 7 cm. wide) cover more than three octaves, rest over a trough resonator, and are struck with two long sticks made of supple buffalo horn ending with a small, round, padded disc. Musically, it has a function of ornamentation.
This is a resonant wooden box which is struck with a small wooden hammer. It is used in dance performances to provide signals to the dancers.
Our library includes sounds that are related to gamelan sounds and instruments, but not part of the traditional music of Central Java. As a non-unique case, the Montebello gamelan instrumentarium includes items that were expressly built by Javanese gamelan-makers in the Western 12-tone tempered scale, having as a model of construction three of the families of instruments of the traditional gamelan: the gender, the saron, the bonang.
In the gender family we have:
- a huge (160 cm.) 13-note, C to C, “slenthem”
- a mid-size (110 cm.) “gender” in the higher octave
- a smaller (90 cm.) “panerus” in the next higher octave.
In the saron family, with bars made of iron:
- a 13-note, C to C, “demung”
- a “saron” in the higher octave
- a “peking” in the next higher octave.
In the bonang family we have forty-nine kettles, made of iron, covering four octaves, in the range of bonang panembung through bonang panerus. In this case, the resting gongs are not provided with fixed supporting frames, so as to allow enough flexibility to play in situations involving a varying number of players. A solution has been devised in terms of a circular board divided into three movable sections which can be arranged in various ways.
One last type of instrument included in our library is a lithophone. Such inclusion is justified, among other things, by the fact that the very notion of striking (gamel) is ever-present in Javanese and Balinese music-making. Even ‘water-gamelan’ exists, where rhythmically hitting the water with varying positions of the hands produces pleasant sound patterns. And as to ‘stone-gamelan’, a living example is normally offered in a sonorous cave in Pacitan, half-way between Surakarta and Yogyakarta, where music is played on walls, stalactites and stalagmites of the cave. Recordings of these forms of gamelan are available.
The Montebello lithophone is made of twenty slabs recovered from parts (mostly steps of staircases) of an old house. The stone is struck with the wooden mallet used for the Javanese saron. We first present the twenty natural sounds in their ‘found tuning’. Then – and this is the only electronic intervention in the whole library – we present three octaves of sounds chromatically tuned in the 12-tone Western scale, derived from the natural sounds.
John Noise Manis John Palmer